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Table 3 Differences between clinicians compared with referral tendency.

From: Attitudes towards 12-step groups and referral practices in a 12-step naive treatment culture; a survey of addiction professionals in Norway

Characteristics Did not refer (N = 172) Low frequent referrers * (N = 67) High frequent
referrers ** (N = 40)
P-value
Gender: % women 134 (77.9%) 43 (64.2%) 24 (60.0%) 0.02
Age, years 44.0 (10.0) 44 (10.8) 47.9 (9.8) 0.08
Working experience in the addiction field; months 88.2 (74.4) 103.0 (87.1) 94.8 (71.1) 0.41
Twelve step treatment unit present in the county 38 (22.1%) 29 (43.3%) 29 (72.5%) <0.001
Personal attitude about TSGs (scale 0 – 10, score 10 is most positive) 7.3 (1.5) 8.1 (1.6) 9.0 (1.1) <0.001
Attitude about TSG subscale items (scale 0 – 10):     
   How helpful are TSGs? 7.0 (1.9) 8.0 (1.8) 9.1 (1.3) <0.001
   How important are TSGs to the recovery process of patients? 7.1 (1.8) 8.1 (1.9) 9.0 (1.2) <0.001
   How important are TSGs in the treatment system? 6.8 (1.9) 7.7 (2.0) 8.7 (1.6) <0.001
   Harmfulness of TSGs (scale 0 – 10, score 10 is harmless) 8.2 (1.7) 8.6 (1.6) 9.1 (0.9) 0.003
Perceived openness to TSGs at workplace (scale 0 – 10) 7.0 (2.5) 7.9 (2.3) 8.7 (1.8) <0.001
Self efficacy to make TSG referrals (scale 0 – 10) 4.3 (2.5) 6.2 (2.4) 7.3 (2.3) <0.001
TSG knowledge scale score (scale 0 – 14) 6.8 (2.9) 8.8 (3.0) 10.0 (3.1) <0.001
Interest in obtaining additional information about TSGs (scale 0 – 10) 6.7 (2.7) 7.1 (2.4) 8.9 (2.0) <0.001
Integration and use of the 12-steps in daily treatment work (N = 275) 14 (8.2%) 23 (34.8%) 22 (56.4%) <0.001
Ever attended AA/NA meeting (N = 278) 40 (23.4%) 25 (37.3%) 23 (57.5%) <0.001
  1. N (%) or mean (SD). P-value obtained from ANOVA or Chi-square (N = 279)
  2. * <50% of patients
  3. ** >50% of patients
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