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Utilization, expenditure, economics and financing systems

This section aims to publish studies looking at a population's use of hospital services and their health and health-related expenditures. The section also accepts economic evaluations of health interventions and services and studies looking at recommendations for people to be able access needed services while avoiding catastrophic expenditure and impoverishment.

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  1. Differences in health care utilization by educational level can contribute to inequalities in health. Understanding health care utilization and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of educational groups may ...

    Authors: Marjolein van der Vlegel, Inge Spronk, Joost Oude Groeniger, Hidde Toet, Martien J. M. Panneman, Suzanne Polinder and Juanita A. Haagsma

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:988

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Sars-Cov-2 is a novel corona virus associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Remdesivir and Dexamethasone are two treatments that have shown to be effective against the Sars-Cov-2 associated disease...

    Authors: Andrea Carta and Claudio Conversano

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:986

    Content type: Research article

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  3. People with musculoskeletal pain seek more healthcare than the general population, however little is known about the long-term effect on healthcare use. The aim of this study was to examine the consequences of...

    Authors: S. Mose, P. Kent, A. Smith, J. H. Andersen and D. H. Christiansen

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:980

    Content type: Research article

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  4. There are plenty of studies investigating the disparity of payer status in accessing to care. However, most studies are either disease-specific or cohort-specific. Quantifying the disparity from the level of f...

    Authors: Yanying Zhao, Ioannis Ch. Paschalidis and Jianqiang Hu

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:930

    Content type: Research article

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  5. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of six diagnostic strategies involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) targeted biopsy for diagnosing prostate cancer in initial and repeat biopsy settings from the Singapor...

    Authors: Li-Jen Cheng, Swee Sung Soon, Teck Wei Tan, Cher Heng Tan, Terence Sey Kiat Lim, Kae Jack Tay, Wei Tim Loke, Bertrand Ang, Edmund Chiong and Kwong Ng

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:909

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Extending service scope of primary care facilities (PCFs) has been widely concerned in China. However, no current data about association between service scope of PCFs with patient outcomes are available. This ...

    Authors: Zhong Li, Meng Shi, Ruibo He, Mei Zhang, Chi Zhang, Xinyu Xiong, Liang Zhang and Boyang Li

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:885

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Though child mortality has dropped remarkably, it is considerably high in South Asia. Across the globe, 5.2 million children under 5 years of age died in 2019, and India accounts for a significant portion of t...

    Authors: Tulasi Malini Maharatha and Umakant Dash

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:881

    Content type: Research article

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  8. A significant concern for rural patients is the cost of travel outside of their community for specialist and diagnostic care. Often, these costs are transferred to patients and their families, who also experie...

    Authors: Jude Kornelsen, Asif Raza Khowaja, Gal Av-Gay, Eva Sullivan, Anshu Parajulee, Marjorie Dunnebacke, Dorothy Egan, Mickey Balas and Peggy Williamson

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:854

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The PAGE-B score (Platelet Age GEnder–HBV) selects chronic hepatitis B (cHB) patients showing no relevant 5-year risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We, therefore, explored potential cost reduction follow...

    Authors: Martin F. Sprinzl, Christina Feist, Sandra Koch, Wolfgang M. Kremer, Karl J. Lackner, Arndt Weinmann and Peter R. Galle

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:846

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease may be treated with biologics, depending on several medical and non-medical factors. This study investigated healthcare costs and production values of patient...

    Authors: Sarah Alulis, Kasper Vadstrup, Jens Olsen, Tine Rikke Jørgensen, Niels Qvist, Pia Munkholm and Andras Borsi

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:836

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The objective is to examine hospital cost accounts to understand the foundation upon which healthcare decisions are based. More specifically, the aim is to add insights to accounting practices and their applic...

    Authors: Margit Malmmose and Jogvan Pauli Lydersen

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:835

    Content type: Research article

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  12. In 2017, the Kenyan Ministry of Health integrated provision of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) into public HIV-1 care clinics as a key component of the national HIV-1 prevention strategy. Estimates of the cost...

    Authors: Kathryn Peebles, Kenneth K. Mugwanya, Elizabeth Irungu, Josephine Odoyo, Elizabeth Wamoni, Jennifer F. Morton, Kenneth Ngure, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Nelly R. Mugo, Sarah Masyuko, Irene Mukui, Jared M. Baeten and Ruanne V. Barnabas

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:823

    Content type: Research article

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  13. In New South Wales (NSW), Australia there are three settings available for women at low risk of complications to give birth: home, birth centre and hospital. Between 2000 and 2012, 93.6% of babies were planned...

    Authors: Vanessa L. Scarf, Serena Yu, Rosalie Viney, Seong Leang Cheah, Hannah Dahlen, David Sibbritt, Charlene Thornton, Sally Tracy and Caroline Homer

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:816

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Heterogeneity in drug access throughout Europe may be influenced by differences in drug-assessment strategies. The EUnetHTA’s assessment core model (EUnetHTA-core) and the EVIDEM’s multicriteria framework are ...

    Authors: David Elvira, Mercè Obach and Caridad Pontes

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:814

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Medicine purchasing in Chinese public hospitals is decided by the hospital Pharmacy Management Committee (PMC), that is complex, subjective and requires efficient approaches to ensure transparency and consiste...

    Authors: Yun Bao, Bei Gao, Min Meng, Bin Ge, Yan Yang, Chunchun Ding, Bingyin Shi and Limin Tian

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:807

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Huntington’s disease (HD) is a hereditary disease which could have a large impact on patients’ quality of life. As the neurodegenerative disorders progress, HD patients are expected to regularly take follow-up...

    Authors: Huiyi Ke, Xi Cao, Yanyan Song and Li Cao

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:806

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Selective lamellar corneal transplantation (keratoplasty) has overtaken full thickness penetrating keratoplasty as the graft choice for endothelial failure. Even more recently eye bank prepared tissues are bec...

    Authors: Luca Pagano, Kunal A Gadhvi, Mohit Parekh, Giulia Coco, Hannah J Levis, Diego Ponzin, Stefano Ferrari, Gianni Virgili, Stephen B Kaye, Rhiannon T Edwards and Vito Romano

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:801

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Unsafe abortion is common in Tanzania. Currently, postabortion care (PAC) is legally provided, but there is little information on the national cost. We estimated the health system costs of offering PAC in Tanz...

    Authors: Naomi Lince-Deroche, George Ruhago, Philicia W. Castillo, Patrice Williams, Projestine Muganyizi and Akinrinola Bankole

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:720

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Family caregivers assume substantial caregiving responsibilities for persons with chronic conditions, such as individuals with spinal cord injury, which leads to negative impacts on their lives. Respite care a...

    Authors: Jianan Huang, Nadja Münzel, Anke Scheel-Sailer and Armin Gemperli

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:637

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Hospitalisations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) cause harm to users and to health systems, as these events are potentially avoidable. In 2009, Portugal was hit by an economic and financial cri...

    Authors: Cristina Loureiro da Silva, João Victor Rocha and Rui Santana

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:506

    Content type: Research article

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  21. There is a lack of information on the cost of depression associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in the literature.

    Authors: Felipe Saia Tápias, Victor Henrique Oyamada Otani, Daniel Augusto Corrêa Vasques, Thais Zelia Santos Otani and Ricardo Riyoiti Uchida

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:433

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Terminal illness can cause a financial burden for many households. In England and Wales, fast-track access to welfare payments is available through special rules for the terminally ill (SRTI). Individuals are ...

    Authors: Edward J. D. Webb, David Meads and Clare Gardiner

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:421

    Content type: Research article

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  23. It is increasingly common for two or more treatments for cancer to be combined as a single regimen. Determining value and appropriate payment for such regimens can be challenging. This study discusses these ch...

    Authors: Nicholas. R Latimer, Daniel Pollard, Adrian Towse, Chris Henshall, Lloyd Sansom, Robyn L Ward, Andrew Bruce and Carla Deakin

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:412

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) was introduced to reduce readmission rates among Medicare beneficiaries, however little is known about readmissions and costs for HRRP-targeted conditions in ...

    Authors: Chi-Hua Lu, Collin M. Clark, Ryan Tober, Meghan Allen, Walter Gibson, Edward M. Bednarczyk, Christopher J. Daly and David M. Jacobs

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:386

    Content type: Research article

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  25. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a breast cancer screening programme that incorporates genetic testing using breast cancer associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), against the c...

    Authors: Jerry Zeng Yang Wong, Jia Hui Chai, Yen Shing Yeoh, Nur Khaliesah Mohamed Riza, Jenny Liu, Yik-Ying Teo, Hwee Lin Wee and Mikael Hartman

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:379

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Self-report resource-use measures (RUMs) are often used to collect healthcare use data from participants in healthcare studies. However, RUMs are typically adapted from existing measures on a study-by-study ba...

    Authors: Kirsty Garfield, Samantha Husbands, Joanna C. Thorn, Sian Noble and Will Hollingworth

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:371

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Severe bronchiolitis requiring mechanical ventilation was associated with an absence of surfactant activity and phosphatidylglycerol, causing airway obstruction in acute bronchiolitis. Exogen surfactant in mec...

    Authors: Jefferson Antonio Buendía and Diana Guerrero Patiño

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:334

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Inpatient palliative care is associated with lower inpatient costs; however, this has yet to be studied using a more nuanced, multi-tiered measure of inpatient palliative care and a national population-represe...

    Authors: Sarina R. Isenberg, Christopher Meaney, Peter May, Peter Tanuseputro, Kieran Quinn, Danial Qureshi, Stephanie Saunders, Colleen Webber, Hsien Seow, James Downar, Thomas J. Smith, Amna Husain, Peter G. Lawlor, Rob Fowler, Julie Lachance, Kimberlyn McGrail…

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:331

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Environmental health services (EHS) in healthcare facilities (HCFs) are critical for providing a safe, functional healthcare environment, but little is known about their costs. Poor understanding of costs impe...

    Authors: Darcy M. Anderson, Ryan Cronk, Emily Pak, Precious Malima, David Fuente, J. Wren Tracy, Innocent Mofolo, Holystone Kafanikhale, Irving Hoffman and Jamie Bartram

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:329

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Subcutaneous (SC) versus intravenous (IV) administration is advantageous in terms of patient convenience and hospital efficiency. This study aimed to compare the effect of optimizing the processes involved in ...

    Authors: María Reyes Abad-Sazatornil, Ainhoa Arenaza, Juan Bayo, Jesus García Mata, José María Guinea De Castro, Josefa León, Javier Letellez, Virginia Reguero, Carmen Martínez Chamorro and Antonio Salar

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:320

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Research has shown unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) significantly improve clinical outcomes and quality of life in adults. However, only 13% of eligible Swedish adults currently use a unilateral CI. The obje...

    Authors: Mutsa Gumbie, Emma Olin, Bonny Parkinson, Ross Bowman and Henry Cutler

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:319

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential to facilitate appropriate laboratory testing. We examined three common medical tests in primary care—hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid, and thyroid stimul...

    Authors: Nadine Chami, Silvy Mathew, Sharada Weir, James G. Wright and Jasmin Kantarevic

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:307

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa accounts for three-quarters of the global cases and 135,000 deaths per annum. Current treatment includes the use of fluconazole and amphot...

    Authors: Jacqui Miot, Trudy Leong, Simbarashe Takuva, Andrew Parrish and Halima Dawood

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:305

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The landscape of cutaneous melanoma (CM) diagnosis, staging, prognosis, and treatment has undergone fundamental changes in the past decade. While the benefits of new health resources are recognized, there is a...

    Authors: Cassia Rita Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar Pereira da Veiga, Alceu Souza, Alberto Julius Alves Wainstein, Andreia Cristina de Melo and Ana Paula Drummond-Lage

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:284

    Content type: Research article

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  35. ERAS (Enhanced Recovery After Surgery) is a multidisciplinary and integrative approach with the goal of optimizing the postoperative recovery. We aimed to analyze the economic impact of a newly established ERA...

    Authors: Johannes Petersen, Benjamin Kloth, Johanna Konertz, Jens Kubitz, Leonie Schulte-Uentrop, Gesche Ketels, Hermann Reichenspurner and Evaldas Girdauskas

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:254

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Since the introduction in 1984 of Australia’s publicly-funded universal healthcare system, Medicare, healthcare financing has relied on a mix of public and private sources to meet the needs of the population (...

    Authors: Lisa Tam, Ellen Tyquin, Amisha Mehta and Ingrid Larkin

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:246

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Insufficient cost data and limited capacity constrains the understanding of the actual resources required for effective TB control. This study used process maps and time-driven activity-based costing to docume...

    Authors: J. Chirenda, B. Nhlema Simwaka, C. Sandy, K. Bodnar, S. Corbin, P. Desai, T. Mapako, S. Shamu, C. Timire, E. Antonio, A. Makone, A. Birikorang, T. Mapuranga, M. Ngwenya, T. Masunda, M. Dube…

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:242

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Out-of-pocket payments have a diverse impact on the burden of those with a higher morbidity or the chronically ill. As the prevalence of chronic diseases increases with age, older adults are a vulnerable group...

    Authors: Veronika Kočiš Krůtilová, Lewe Bahnsen and Diana De Graeve

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:239

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Price negotiations for specialty pharmaceuticals take place in a complex market setting. The determination of the added value of new treatments and the related societal willingness to pay are of increasing imp...

    Authors: Dominik J. Wettstein and Stefan Boes

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:234

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Uganda experiences a high morbidity and mortality burden due to conditions amenable to emergency care, yet few public hospitals have dedicated emergency units. As a result, little is known about the costs and ...

    Authors: Kalin Werner, Tracy Kuo Lin, Nicholas Risko, Martha Osiro, Joseph Kalanzi and Lee Wallis

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:232

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women. Breast cancer imposes a considerable economic burden on the health system. This study aimed to compare the cost of breast cancer among patients who refer...

    Authors: Abolhasan Afkar, Habib Jalilian, Abolghasem Pourreza, Habibeh Mir, Abdolhosein Emami Sigaroudi and Somayeh Heydari

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:219

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Systematic approaches to the inclusion of economic evaluation in national healthcare decision-making are usual. It is less common for economic evaluation to be routinely undertaken at the ‘local-level’ (e.g. i...

    Authors: Andrew Searles, Donella Piper, Christine Jorm, Penny Reeves, Maree Gleeson, Jonathan Karnon, Nicholas Goodwin, Kenny Lawson, Rick Iedema and Jane Gray

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:201

    Content type: Study protocol

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  43. Acute otitis media (AOM) is among the most common paediatric conditions managed in primary care. Most recent estimates of the cost of AOM date from a decade ago and lack a full societal perspective. We therefo...

    Authors: Rick T. van Uum, Roderick P. Venekamp, Clémence T. B. Pasmans, G. Ardine de Wit, Alies Sjoukes, Alma C. van der Pol, Roger A. M. J. Damoiseaux and Anne G. M. Schilder

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:193

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Smoking exerts substantial medical burdens on society. Precise estimation of the smoking-attributable medical expenditures (SAME) helps to inform tobacco control policy makers. Based on the epidemiological app...

    Authors: Shiyao Huang, Han Wei, Tingting Yao, Zhengzhong Mao, Qun Sun and Lian Yang

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:187

    Content type: Research article

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  45. As low- and middle-income countries progress toward Universal Health Coverage, there is an increasing focus on measuring out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure and health services utilization within countries. While ...

    Authors: Faraz Khalid, Wajeeha Raza, David R. Hotchkiss and Rieza H. Soelaeman

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:178

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:570

  46. Globally, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) admissions are amongst the most expensive. In low middle-income countries, out of pocket expenditure (OOP) constitutes a major portion of the total expenditure. T...

    Authors: Amrit Kaur, Muralidharan Jayashree, Shankar Prinja, Ranjana Singh and Arun K. Baranwal

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:168

    Content type: Research article

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  47. In the low- and middle-income countries, most patients with esophageal cancer present with advanced stage disease and experience poor survival. There is inadequate understanding of the factors that influence d...

    Authors: Nakimuli Esther, Ssentongo Julius and Mwaka Amos Deogratius

    Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2021 21:159

    Content type: Research article

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