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Table 4 Factors associated with total inpatient costs (EEE model)

From: Costs of hospitalization for stroke from two urban health insurance claims data in Guangzhou City, southern China

  All cases (n = 114,872) P-value
Coef. Adjusted Std. Err. Marginal Effect
Male (Reference: Female) 0.007 [0.004] 131.6 0.050
Age (Reference: 17≤Age < 45)
 45 ≤ Age < 65 −0.012 [0.019] − 222.3 0.515
 65 ≤ Age < 75 −0.019 [0.019] − 336.8 0.321
 75 ≤ Age < 80 −0.028 [0.019] − 500.7 0.140
 ≥ 80 −0.046** [0.019] −817.4 0.015
Insurance Type (Reference: URBMI)
 UEBMI 0.052*** [0.008] 910.4 0.000
Comorbidities (Reference: None)
 Coronary heart disease −0.011 [0.005] −190.4 0.052
 Hypertension −0.049*** [0.004] − 875.8 0.000
 Diabetes 0.035*** [0.005] 638.6 0.000
 Alzheimer’s disease −0.057*** [0.017] −991.1 0.001
 Parkinson’s disease −0.033*** [0.012] −588.6 0.005
 Mental disorder −0.039 [0.028] −687.3 0.166
 Chronic kidney disease −0.005 [0.026] −93.6 0.843
Stroke Types (Reference: TIA)
 IS 0.111*** [0.007] 1959.1 0.000
 SAH 1.024*** [0.037] 27,497.1 0.000
 ICH 0.468*** [0.013] 9655.8 0.000
 Other strokes 0.047*** [0.010] 848.3 0.000
ICU admission (Reference: None) 1.726*** [0.059] 62,499.3 0.000
Referral from other hospitals (Reference: None) 0.207*** [0.022] 4017.2 0.000
Readmission in 15 days (Reference: None) 0.157*** [0.033] 2989.6 0.000
Length of stay (Reference: < 10)
 10 ≤ Days< 20 0.379*** [0.006] 7244.3 0.000
 ≥ 20 1.610*** [0.010] 35,417.4 0.000
Hospital level: Primary (Reference)
 Secondary 0.213*** [0.007] 4005.0 0.000
 Tertiary 0.700*** [0.010] 11,787.4 0.000
Year: (Reference: Year 2006)
 Year 2007 0.048*** [0.010] 871.6 0.000
 Year 2008 0.114*** [0.009] 2110.6 0.000
 Year 2009 0.201*** [0.009] 3832.0 0.000
 Year 2010 0.265*** [0.009] 5161.1 0.000
 Year 2011 0.293*** [0.009] 5681.2 0.000
 Year 2012 0.354*** [0.009] 6901.8 0.000
 Year 2013 0.369*** [0.011] 7565.7 0.000
λ 0.173*** [0.013]   
θ1 0.752*** [0.013]   
θ2 2.720*** [0.022]   
  1. Standard errors in brackets are adjusted for clustering at the patient level
  2. IS Ischaemic stroke, SAH Subarachnoid haemorrhage, ICH Intracerebral haemorrhage, TIA Transient ischaemic attack, UEBMI Urban Employee-based Basic Medical Insurance scheme, URBMI Urban Resident-based Basic Medical Insurance scheme
  3. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05. EEE - extended estimating equations model