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Table 3 Mean time per patient spent by healthcare providers on unique bedside activities over a 240 min initiation period

From: Bubble CPAP and oxygen for child pneumonia care in Malawi: a CPAP IMPACT time motion study

Task, mean minutes (SD) bCPAP Initiation (n = 12) Oxygen Initiation (n = 11) p value
All 118.18 (42.73) 83.47 (20.18) 0.02*
Healthcare provider cadre
 Clinical officer 27.43 (36.67) 20.62 (20.85) 0.59
 Nurse 70.40 (51.70) 48.53 (34.95) 0.25
 Vital sign assistant 1.20 (3.15) 1.48 (2.33) 0.86
 HIV counselor 19.13 (16.00) 12.85 (20.83) 0.42
Non-trial specific tasks
 All 107.15 (42.22) 73.82 (19.35) 0.03*
 Communication 18.98 (22.23) 13.73 (8.12) 0.47
 Documentation 37.62 (14.25) 30.77 (11.63) 0.22
 Physical Examination 0.85 (1.13) 0.52 (0.82) 0.47
 Vital signs 3.77 (2.27) 3.67 (2.25) 0.91
 Adjustment of equipment 15.28 (7.27) 2.83 (2.17) < 0.01*
 Adjustment of nasal interface 13.78 (8.93) 2.65 (2.78) < 0.01*
 Suctioning 1.40 (3.22) 1.03 (2.08) 0.73
 Blood draw 7.40 (5.15) 9.17 (7.90) 0.54
 Medication Administration 0.67 (0.82) 1.83 (1.62) 0.03*
 Feeding 2.47 (4.15) 0.05 (0.18) 0.07
 Not otherwise specified 4.92 (7.87) 8.23 (6.67) 0.29
Trial-specific tasks
 All 11.02 (2.20) 9.67 (2.52) 0.17
 Video recording of breathing 5.33 (1.42) 4.95 (2.35) 0.62
 Digital auscultation lung sound recording 5.68 (1.78) 4.70 (1.78) 0.23
  1. bCPAP indicates bubble continuous positive airway pressure; SD, standard deviation; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus
  2. *p < 0.05 considered statistically significant