Skip to main content

Table 2 Observed mean (SD) at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Estimated differences (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) within groups from baseline to 6 months and from baseline to 12 months, and differences between groups at 12 months

From: Twelve-month effect of chronic pain self-management intervention delivered in an easily accessible primary healthcare service - a randomised controlled trial

  Group Observed Estimated
Within groups Baseline to 6 months Within groups Baseline to 12 months Between groups 12 months
Baseline mean(SD) 6 months mean (SD) 12 months mean (SD) Diff
(95% CI)
p-value Diff
(95% CI)
p-value Diff
(95% CI)
p-value
PAM-13
(0–100) ↑
INTV 63.9 (13.2) 67.7 (14.5) 66.7 (14.3) 4.0 (0.4 to 7.5) 0.027 3.1 (−0.4 to 6.5) 0.084 4.0 (− 0.6 to 8.6) 0.085
CTRL 63.0 (12.9) 64.9 (12.4) 62.2 (10.0) 1.4 (−2.2 to 5.0) 0.445 −1.0 (−4.5 to 2.6) 0.587
BPI, severity
(0–40) ↓
INTV 18.2 (6.5) 17.4 (7.4) 17.4 (6.8) −0.8 (− 2.4 to 0.8) 0.320 − 0.5 (− 1.8 to 0.9) 0.486 0.6 (− 1.3 to 2.4) 0.526
CTRL 18.8 (5.6) 18.1 (6.6) 17.4 (6.1) −0.5 (−2.1 to 1.1) 0.550 −1.1 (−2.5 to 0.3) 0.124
BPI, interference
(0–70) ↓
INTV 29.2 (14.0) 27.9 (16.0) 25.9 (14.5) −1.6 (−5.2 to 2.0) 0.379 −3.3 (−6.7 to 0.1) 0.061 −2.6 (−7.3 to 2.0) 0.269
CTRL 32.6 (13.1) 30.8 (15.0) 31.0 (15.0) −0.5 (−4.3 to 3.2) 0.779 −0.6 (− 4.2 to 2.9) 0.728
BPI, pain relief
(0–10) ↑(0-
INTV 3.4 (3.3) 4.0 (2.8) 6.3 (14.5) 0.6 (−0.2 to 1.4) 0.134 2.9 (0.5 to 5.2) 0.017 2.9 (−0.1 to 5.8) 0.055
CTRL 3.5 (2.9) 3.4 (2.9) 3.4 (2.9) −0.1 (−0.9 to 0.8) 0.894 −0.003 (−2.4 to 2.4) 0.998
VAS, pain
(0–100) ↓
INTV 62.7 (18.2) 53.9 (21.5) 55.5 (23.6) −8.7 (−14.2 to −3.3) 0.002 −7.0 (− 12.5 to − 1.4) 0.014 −0.5 (− 7.6 to 6.7) 0.901
CTRL 62.8 (15.1) 56.1 (19.3) 56.0 (19.6) −6.5 (−12.1 to − 1.0) 0.021 −6.5 (− 12.2 to −0.8) 0.026
HADS, depression
(0–21) ↓
INTV 4.4 (3.0) 4.8 (3.9) 4.8 (3.5) 0.4 (−0.4 to 1.1) 0.329 0.3 (−0.5 to 1.0) 0.468 0.3 (−0.7 to 1.3) 0.525
CTRL 5.1 (3.1) 5.1 (3.7) 5.0 (3.6) 0.2 (−0.6 to 1.0) 0.672 −0.1 (− 0.8 to 0.7) 0.883
HADS, anxiety
(0–21) ↓
INTV 7.8 (3.4) 7.1 (4.5) 7.2 (4.3) −0.7 (−1.4 to 0.002) 0.051 −0.6 (− 1.3 to 0.2) 0.132 0.1 (− 0.9 to 1.2) 0.798
CTRL 8.1 (3.6) 7.8 (3.7) 7.5 (3.1) −0.5 (−1.3 to 0.2) 0.163 −0.7 (−1.5 to 0.1) 0.072
PSEQ
(0–60) ↑
INTV 38.1 (10.5) 39.1 (12.8) 39.1 (12.1) 1.0 (−1.5 to 3.3) 0.452 0.5 (−1.9 to 3.0) 0.678 1.5 (−1.9 to 4.9) 0.387
CTRL 37.5 (10.4) 37.6 (10.8) 37.2 (11.2) −0.7 (−3.2 to 1.7) 0.554 −1.0 (−3.5 to 1.6) 0.453
SOC-13
(13–91) ↑
INTV 61.4 (12.4) 62.8 (15.2) 63.4 (15.5) 1.1 (−1.4 to 3.5) 0.401 1.1 (−1.4 to 3.5) 0.393 0.5 (−2.9 to 3.9) 0.771
CTRL 61.8 (13.0) 63.7 (12.9) 62.1 (12.4) 1.5 (−1.0 to 4.0) 0.231 0.6 (−1.9 to 3.0) 0.657
EQ-5D-5 L
(0–1) ↑
INTV 0.63 (0.14) 0.64 (0.16) 0.63 (0.15) 0.02 (−0.01 to 0.05) 0.174 0.002 (− 0.03 to 0.03) 0.896 − 0.03 (− 0.1 to 0.01) 0.206
CTRL 0.61 (0.14) 0.65 (0.14) 0.64 (0.16) 0.04 (0.004 to 0.07) 0.029 0.03 (−0.002 to 0.06) 0.069
AIOS
(0–100) ↑
INTV 46.3 (21.3) 51.8 (19.1) 45.1 (16.6) 6.5 (0.9 to 12.1) 0.023 0.2 (−5.8 to 6.1) 0.960 1.7 (−5.6 to 8.9) 0.649
CTRL 43.4 (18.5) 45.5 (16.2) 43.3 (16.4) 0.8 (−5.0 to 6.5) 0.797 −1.5 (−7.7 to 4.6) 0.625
Global health
(1–5) ↑
INTV 2.1 (0.89) 3.5 (0.9) 3.6 (0.9) 1.4 (1.1 to 1.6) < 0.001 1.4 (1.2 to 1.7) < 0.001 −0.1 (−0.4 to 0.2) 0.363
CTRL 2.2 (0.69) 3.6 (0.7) 3.8 (0.6) 1.4 (1.1 to 1.7) < 0.001 1.6 (1.3 to 1.8) < 0.001
Physical activity
(1–5) ↑
INTV 4.0 (0.87) 4.0 (1.0) 4.0 (0.9) −0.002 (−0.2 to 0.2) 0.985 0.01 (−0.2 to 0.2) 0.927 0.01 (−0.3 to 0.3) 0.929
CTRL 4.0 (1.02) 4.1 (0.8) 4.0 (0.8) 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3) 0.356 −0.003 (− 0.2 to 0.2) 0.976
30 s Chair to Stand
INTV 12.5 (4.1) 13.3 (6.6) 15.0 (4.7) 0.9 (−0.4 to 2.2) 0.161 2.2 (1.4 to 3.1) < 0.001 −0.5 (−1.7 to 0.7) 0.383
CTRL 11.5 (4.0) 12.8 (5.6) 14.4 (3.7) 1.0 (−0.4 to 2.3) 0.153 2.8 (1.9 to 3.6) < 0.001
  1. SD: Standard deviation; INTV: Intervention group; CTRL: Control group; PAM-13: Patient Activation Measure; BPI: Brief Pain Inventory; VAS: Visual analogue Scale; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; PSEQ: Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire; SOC-13: Sense of Coherence; EQ-5D-5 L: EuroQoL 5 dimensions 5 level; AIOS: Arizona Integrative Outcomes Scale
  2. Estimates presented are from linear mixed effects model (unadjusted) without random slope. ↑ Increase in scores indicates improvement
  3. ↓ Decrease in scores indicates improvement
  4. The numbers of participants for each outcome at 6 months varied between 96 and 103 due to some missing responses
  5. The numbers of participants for each outcome at 12 months varied between 85 and 100 due to some missing responses