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Table 2 Results of GEE model analysis to identify patient, pharmacy, and community factors associated with receiving an MCA service

From: Factors affecting the delivery of community pharmacist-led medication reviews: evidence from the MedsCheck annual service in Ontario

Parameter Odds Ratio 95 % CI P-value
Intercept 0.029 0.028 0.031 *
Age, years (reference: 66–70)
 71–75 0.999 0.976 1.022  
 76–80 0.989 0.966 1.014  
 81–85 0.922 0.897 0.948 *
 86+ 0.716 0.694 0.740 *
Female 0.904 0.888 0.919 *
Recent immigrant <15 years 1.016 0.969 1.066  
Hypertension 1.176 1.149 1.205 *
Ischemic heart disease 1.045 1.021 1.070 *
Heart failure 0.884 0.859 0.910 *
Diabetes 0.614 0.601 0.627 *
COPD/asthma 0.978 0.960 0.997  
Depression 0.903 0.858 0.951 *
Dementia 0.574 0.548 0.600 *
Prior MCA 3.032 2.979 3.086 *
Adherence to ACEi/ARB/statin (reference: non–adherent)
 Adherent to ACEi/ARB/statin 1.043 1.008 1.080  
 Not receiving ACEi/ARB/statin 0.897 0.865 0.931 *
Number of ADGs in past 2 years 0.994 0.991 0.997 *
Number of ED visits in the last year 0.981 0.972 0.989 *
Number of hospitalizations in the last year 0.990 0.979 1.001  
Number of physicians in the last year 0.994 0.992 0.996 *
New hospitalization/ED admission in past 60 days 1.065 1.041 1.090 *
Use of high risk medication in past 6 months 1.091 1.066 1.116 *
Use of PIMs in past 6 months 0.896 0.880 0.912 *
New prescription medication at claim-date 1.776 1.744 1.808 *
Number of physicians in past 3 months 1.013 1.011 1.015 *
No. unique medications in the past 4 months (reference category: 0–4)
 5–6 1.010 0.988 1.033  
 7–8 0.803 0.782 0.824 *
 9–11 0.641 0.622 0.660 *
 11+ 0.443 0.427 0.460 *
Pharmacy volumea (reference category: lowest)
 2 0.884 0.851 0.918 *
 3 0.870 0.839 0.901 *
 4 0.784 0.757 0.812 *
 5 (highest) 0.649 0.626 0.672 *
Rurality index of Ontario (reference category: major urban, 0–9)
 10–44 (non-major urban) 0.754 0.739 0.770 *
 45+ (rural) 0.737 0.710 0.765 *
Income quintile (reference category: lowest)
 2 1.056 1.028 1.085 *
 3 1.051 1.023 1.080 *
 4 1.058 1.029 1.087 *
 5 (Highest) 1.079 1.050 1.109 *
  1. *P value < Bonferroni corrected α: 0.0012. aQuantiles formed from the number of claims per pharmacy from April 1st 2011 to March 31st 2012
  2. ACEi indicates angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ADG Aggregated Diagnosis Group based on the Johns Hopkins Ambulatory Care Group case-mix system, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, CI confidence interval, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ED emergency department, MCA MedsCheck Annual, PIM Potentially inappropriate medication