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Table 1 Patient, pharmacy and community level characteristics on MCA-eligible pharmacy claim-dates

From: Factors affecting the delivery of community pharmacist-led medication reviews: evidence from the MedsCheck annual service in Ontario

Characteristics MCA claims
n = 65,605
Non-MCA claims
n = 2,787,387
P-value
Patient-level characteristics defined at the first claim-date
 Age (years), n (%)
  66–70 16,717 (25.5) 674,825 (24.2) *
  71–75 16,444 (25.1) 617,611 (22.2)
  76–80 14,754 (22.5) 572,702 (20.6)
  81–85 10,741 (16.4) 474,862 (17.0)
  86+ 6,949 (10.6) 447,387 (16.0)
Female, n (%) 36,471 (55.6) 1,632,655 (58.6) *
Recent immigrant (<15 years), n (%) 2,086 (3.2) 65,645 (2.4) *
Hypertension, n (%) 55,035 (83.9) 2,286,761 (82.0) *
Ischemic heart disease, n (%) 12,111 (18.5) 534,862 (19.2) *
Heart failure, n (%) 7,281 (11.1) 445,334 (16.0) *
Diabetes, n (%) 17,252 (26.3) 1,054,580 (37.8) *
COPD/asthma, n (%) 20,650 (31.5) 980,904 (35.2) *
Osteoporosis, n (%) 12,875 (19.6) 545,372 (19.6) 0.709
Cancer, n (%) 11,876 (18.1) 500,281 (17.9) 0.311
Depression, n (%) 1,857 (2.8) 110,137 (4.0) *
Dementia, n (%) 2,388 (3.6) 216,747 (7.8) *
Prior MCA, n (%) 37,820 (57.6) 944,962 (33.9) *
 Adherent to ACEi/ARB/statin, n (%)
  No 4,388 (6.7) 164,301 (5.9) *a
  Yes 45,390 (69.2) 1,907,223 (68.4)
  NA (not receiving) 15,827 (24.1) 715,863 (25.7)
Number of ADGs in past 2 years, mean (SD) 8.1 (3.7) 8.4 (3.9) *
Number of ED admissions in the last year, mean (SD) 0.6 (1.4) 0.829 (1.8) *
Number of hospitalizations in the last year, mean (SD) 0.5 (0.9) 0.542 (1.1) *
Number of physicians in the last year, mean (SD) 7.9 (6.7) 8.6 (7.8) *
Patient-level characteristics defined at each claim-date
New hospitalization/ED admission in past 60 days, n (%) 9,921 (15.1) 457,454 (16.4) *
Use of high risk medication in past 6 months, n (%) 52,928 (80.7) 2,314,441 (83.0) *
Use of PIMs in past 6 months, n (%) 27,532 (42.0) 1,406,024 (50.4) *
New prescription medication at claim-date, n (%) 16,026 (24.4) 396,030 (14.2) *
Number of physicians in past 3 months, mean (SD) 5.2 (5.0) 5.3 (5.4) *
Number of unique medications in past 4 months, mean (SD) 6.7 (3.5) 7.8 (4.3) *
 Number of unique medications in past 4 months (quintiles), n (%)
  0–4 19,232 (29.3) 668635 (24.0) *
  5–6 17,672 (26.9) 553817 (19.9)
  7–8 12,529 (19.1) 507791 (18.2)
  9–11 10,111 (15.4) 544720 (19.5)
  12–42 6,061 (9.2) 512424 (18.4)
Pharmacy-level characteristic
 Pharmacy volume (quintiles), n (%)
  1 (lowest) 4,940 (7.8) 137,937 (5.1) *
  2 9,147 (14.5) 283,112 (10.5)
  3 13,661 (21.6) 461,396 (17.2)
  4 16,757 (26.5) 675,308 (25.1)
  5 (highest) 18,726 (29.6) 1,129,756 (42.0)
Community-level characteristics
 Rurality index of Ontario, n (%)
  0–9 (major urban) 47,470 (72.8) 1,744,607 (63.2) *
  10–44 (non-major urban) 14,210 (21.8) 803,936 (29.1)
  45+ (rural) 3,559 (5.5) 211,667 (7.7)
 Income quintiles, n (%)
  1 (lowest) 11,582 (17.7) 569,300 (20.5) *
  2 13,593 (20.8) 583,981 (21.0)
  3 12,999 (19.9) 546,306 (19.7)
  4 13,397 (20.5) 542,397 (19.5)
  5 (highest) 13,825 (21.1) 533,984 (19.2)
 Material deprivation quintiles, n (%)
  1 (lowest) 16,114 (24.8) 602,791 (22.0) *
  2 15,327 (23.6) 610,747 (22.3)
  3 13,919 (21.4) 591,068 (21.5)
  4 11,192 (17.2) 515,031 (18.8)
  5 (highest) 8,365 (12.9) 424,022 (15.5)
  1. *P-value < 0.001. a‘No’ versus ‘Yes’
  2. ACEi indicates angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ADG Aggregated Diagnosis Group based on the Johns Hopkins Ambulatory Care Group case-mix system, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ED emergency department, MCA MedsCheck Annual, NA not applicable, PIM Potentially inappropriate medication, SD standard deviation