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Table 2 Types of interprofessional collaboration practice based on the framework developed by Careau and collaborators [28]

From: Combining administrative data feedback, reflection and action planning to engage primary care professionals in quality improvement: qualitative assessment of short term program outcomes

Types of IP collaborative practices Definition
Parallel practice Parallel interprofessional practice is characterized by a situation where a professional comes into contact with at least one professional from another discipline to inform or become informed about the services he delivers to the same person, family or community. Interactions between professionals are minimal or absent (ex: sharing reports and progress notes contained a patient file).
Consultation/reference practice Consultation/reference practice is related to the intention to exchange and share information with at least one professional from another discipline. It involves recognition of one’s own expertise and limits and expertise and role of professionals from other disciplines. Interactions remain few and sporadic and professionals continue to work in parallel (ex: referral to another professional, consultation, assessment and treatment of a specific need).
Concerted practice Concerted practice is based on the intention to plan and especially organize care and services in order to meet the biopsychosocial needs of a person, family or community. It aims to agree on disciplinary objectives and coordinate services provided by multiple professionals. The interaction is moderate and bidirectional. This type of collaborative practice is qualified as “multidisplinary”.
Shared healthcare practice Shared healthcare practice involves shared decision-making and setting of common objectives and actions between professionals and the person, family or community. Interactions between professionals and the patient are necessarily more intense in this type of practice (interdependence and sharing of responsibilities). This type of collaborative practice is qualified as “interdisciplinary”.