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Table 4 Logistic regression analysis showing factors associated with referral to TSGs.

From: Attitudes towards 12-step groups and referral practices in a 12-step naive treatment culture; a survey of addiction professionals in Norway

Characteristics Bivariate analysis
ORa (95% CI)
P-value Multivariate analysis
ORb (95% CI)
P-value
Gender: women 0.5 (0.3 – 0.8) < 0.006 - -
Older age 1.0 (0.9 – 1.0) 0.254 - -
Longer experience in addiction field 1.0 (0.9 – 1.0) 0.220 - -
Twelve step treatment unit present in the county 3.8 (2.3 – 6.5) < 0.001 - -
More positive attitude about TSGs 1.7 (1.4 – 2.0) < 0.001 - -
More openness to TSG at workplace 1.3 (1.1 – 1.4) < 0.001 - -
Higher self-efficacy for making successful referrals to TSGs 1.5 (1.3 – 1.7) < 0.001 1.3 (1.1 – 1.5) < 0.001
Greater TSG knowledge 1.3 (1.2 – 1.4) < 0.001 1.2 (1.1 – 1.3) 0.005
Integration and use of the 12-steps in own treatment work 8.4 (4.3 – 16.3) < 0.001 4.4 (2.1 – 9.6) < 0.001
Ever attended AA/NA meetings 2.7 (1.6 – 4.5) < 0.001 - -
Education:     
   - Lower education 0.9 (0.4 – 2.0) 0.762 - -
   - College university 0.4 (0.2 – 0.8) 0.011 - -
   - University reference    
Type of unit:     
   - Out-patient 0.8 (0.4 – 1.6) 0.565 - -
   - Short-term treatment (detox) 0.4 (0.3 – 0.8) 0.007 - -
   - Long-term treatment reference    
  1. Variables with p-value < 0.10 were included in the multivariate analysis (N = 279)
  2. a = unadjusted OR
  3. b = adjusted OR
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