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Table 1 The indicator set.

From: A cluster randomized controlled trial of a clinical pathway for hospital treatment of heart failure: study design and population

Indicator (measure) Typology Criterion met/expected change Measure
In hospital mortality Outcome Differences in rates %
Length of hospital stay Outcome Differences in mean values days
Appropriateness of the stay (with Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol – AEP) Outcome Differences in rates %
Costs of the stay (with Activity Based Costing – ABC) Outcome Differences in mean values € (euro)
Rate of unscheduled readmissions (within 31 days) Outcome Differences in rates %
Patients' satisfaction (survey with 16 items questionnaire) Outcome Differences in mean values score (1–10)
Diagnostic procedures during hospital stay Process Differences in rates %
   Echocardiography    
   Trans-oesophageal echocardiography    
   Electrocardiography    
   Chest x-rays    
   Oximetry    
   Weight monitoring    
   Diuresis monitoring    
Medical treatment during hospital stay Process Differences in rates %
   Inotropes    
   ACE-inhibitors    
   Beta-blockers    
   Diuretics    
   Nitrates    
   Other vasodilators    
   Heparin    
   Oral anticoagulants    
   Anti-platelets agents    
Left ventricular function (LVF) assessment rate at discharge (or planned for after discharge) Process Given to all patients %
Rehabilitation rate at discharge (or planned for after discharge) Process Given to all patients %
Advice/counseling rate for smoking cessation at discharge Process Given to all patients (current smokers) %
Written instructions rate at discharge (activity level, diet, discharge medications, follow up, weight monitoring and what to do if symptoms worsen) Process Given to all patients %
ACE-inhibitor rate at discharge (without contraindications, with LVF < 40%) Process Given to all patients %