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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study population.

From: Assessment of nursing home residents in Europe: the Services and Health for Elderly in Long TERm care (SHELTER) study

  Total sample
n = 4156
(%)
Czech Republic
n = 500
(%)
England
n = 507
(%)
Finland
n = 484
(%)
France
n = 493
(%)
Germany
n = 496
(%)
Israel
n = 580
(%)
Italy
n = 548
(%)
The Netherlands
n = 548
(%)
Age, years (mean ± SD) 83.4 ± 9.4 81.3 ± 8.3 84.5 ± 9.5 84.8 ± 8.0 87.3 ± 7.8 84.6 ± 8.3 81.2 ± 11.0 83.5 ± 9.3 81.0 ± 10.4
Female gender 3035 (73) 362 (72.4) 365 (72.0) 362 (74.8) 374 (75.9) 392 (79.0) 412 (71.0) 401 (73.2) 367 (67.0)
ADL disability*          
   Assistance required 1723 (41.5) 160 (32.0) 132 (26.0) 293 (60.5) 155 (31.4) 271 (54.6) 195 (33.6) 226 (41.2) 291 (53.1)
   Dependent 1653 (39.8) 204 (40.8) 315 (62.1) 129 (26.7) 229 (46.5) 124 (25.0) 293 (50.5) 231 (42.2) 128 (23.4)
Cognitive status†          
   Mild/Moderate impairment 1563 (37.6) 213 (42.6) 181 (35.7) 339 (70.0) 141 (28.6) 146 (29.4) 134 (23.1) 152 (27.7) 257 (46.9)
   Severe impairment 1265 (30.4) 114 (22.8) 145 (28.6) 82 (16.9) 234 (47.5) 139 (28.0) 273 (47.1) 192 (35.0) 86 (15.7)
Depression‡ 1331 (32.0) 145 (29.2) 162 (32.0) 171 (35.9) 171 (34.8) 103 (20.8) 170 (30.5) 193 (36.8) 216 (39.4)
Behavioral symptoms 1142 (27.5) 96 (19.2) 159 (31.4) 224 (46.3) 105 (21.3) 108 (21.8) 160 (27.6) 142 (25.9) 148 (27.0)
Falls 774 (18.6) 131 (26.2) 72 (14.2) 101 (20.9) 95 (19.3) 115 (23.2) 60 (10.3) 75 (13.7) 125 (22.8)
Pressure ulcers 432 (10.4) 79 (15.8) 54 (10.7) 23 (4.8) 58 (11.8) 48 (9.7) 38 (6.6) 73 (13.3) 59 (10.8)
Pain 1496 (36.0) 234 (46.8) 193 (38.8) 222 (46.0) 205 (41.8) 192 (38.8) 92 (15.9) 118 (21.7) 240 (43.8)
Urinary incontinence 3054 (73.5) 354 (69.0) 402 (79.3) 401 (82.9) 362 (73.7) 341 (68.9) 437 (75.3) 417 (76.7) 349 (63.7)
  1. ADL - Activities of Daily Living
  2. * Assistance required is defined by ADL hierarchical scale score 2 to 4, dependent by ADL hierarchical scale score 5 to 6.
  3. † Mild/moderate cognitive impairment is defined by Cognitive Performance Scale Score (CPS) 2 to 4, severe impairment by CPS 5 to 6.
  4. ‡ Depression Rating Scale score ≥ 3.