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Table 2 Estimated association between state-level unemployment and retail dispensed prescription drug utilization for seven therapeutic areas

From: Association between unemployment rates and prescription drug utilization in the United States, 2007–2010

  Opiates ACE Inhibitors Statins Oral contraceptives Atypical Antipsychotics SSRIs and SNRIs PDE inhibitors
Fixed Effects
  Base Utilization Rate (per 100,000) 5162 (4788, 5566) 3992 (3871, 4117) 4356 (4246, 4470) 8261 (8160, 8363) 3326 (3187, 3471) 1382 (624, 3059) 1183 (1168, 1199)
  State Mean Unemployment + 1.02 (1.01, 1.03) 0.99 (0.99, 1.00) 0.98 (0.98, 0.99) 0.97 (0.97, 0.97) 0.84 (0.84, 0.84) 1.11 (0.99, 1.23) 1.01 (1.01, 1.01)
  Deviation from State Mean Unemployment + 1.02 (1.00, 1.03) 1.01 (0.99, 1.02) 1.04 (1.02, 1.05) 1.01 (1.00, 1.01) 1.01 (1.00, 1.02) 1.01 (0.97, 1.05) 1.03 (1.03, 1.04)
Random Effects
  Intercept 0.0752*** 0.0584*** 0.0590*** 0.0577*** 0.1483*** 0.0709*** 0.0918***
  Intercept-UnempDev −0.0002 0.0009* 0.0004 0.0008* −0.0014 0.0006 −0.0016
  UnempDev 0.0002*** 0.0001*** 0.0003*** 0.0001*** 0.0002*** 0.0001*** 0.0005***
  BIC 67410 67484 66799 58081 67876 68718 40414
  1. + Values represent incident rate ratios (95% confidence intervals); base utilization rates derived using data from IMS Health Xponent™, 2007–2010 and the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics; models adjusted for covariates depicted in Additional file 1: Appendix Table S2.
  2. BIC = Bayesian Information Criterion, a measure of model fit; UnempDev = Deviation from State Mean Unemployment; ACE = Angiotensin-converting enzyme; SSRI = selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; SNRI = serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; PDE = phosphodiesterase.