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Table 3 Logistic regression models showing the determinants of health care utilization in urban and rural areas in Zambia (2003)

From: Health status and socio-economic factors associated with health facility utilization in rural and urban areas in Zambia

Characteristics n (1%) Urban n (1%) Rural
   Unadjusted OR (95%CI) Adjusted OR (95%CI)   Unadjusted OR (95%CI) Adjusted OR (95%CI)
Age group       
15-19 323 (23.7) 1 1 197 (18.5) 1 1
20-24 363 (26.6) 1.3 (1.0,1.6) 1.3 (1.0,1.6) 212 (19.9) 1.0 (0.7,1.3) 1.0 (0.6,1.3)
25-29 264 (19.4) 1.9 (1.4,2.4) 1.7 (1.2,2.3) 185 (17.4) 1.0 (0.8,1.4) 1.0 (0.6,1.4)
30-39 289 (21.2) 2.2 (1.7,2.8) 2.0 (1.5,3.0) 281 (26.4) 1.0 (0.8,1.5) 1.0 (0.6,1.4)
40-49 125 (9.2) 1.6 (1.3,2.1) 1.3 (0.8,1.9) 191 (17.9) 1.7 (1.2,2.4) 1.4 (0.9,2.2)
Sex       
Male 508 (37.2) 1 1 461 (43.2) 1 1
Female 856 (62.8) 1.3 (1.1,1.5) 1.4 (1.1,1.6) 605 (56.8) 1.0 (0.8,1.2) 1.2 (0.8,1.3)
Marital status       
Single 720 (52.8) 1 1 261 (24.5) 1 1
Married 535 (39.2) 1.5 (1.3,1.8) 1.0 (0.8,1.4) 706 (66.3) 1.0 (0.8,1.2) 1.0 (0.8,1.6)
Divorced/separated/widowed 105 (7.7) 1.7 (1.2,2.3) 1.0 (0.6,1.4) 98 (9.2) 1.7 (1.1,2.6) 1.7 (1.0,2.8)
Educational status       
0-7 211 (15.5) 1 1 658 (61.7) 1 1
8-9 234 (17.2) 1.1 (0.8,1.4) 1.2 (0.9,1.6) 203 (19.0) 1.9 (1.4,2.5) 1.7 (1.2,2.3)
10+ 916 (67.2) 1.4 (1.1,1.7) 1.7 (1.3,2.1) 199 (18.9) 2.1 (1.6,2.8) 1.4 (1.0,2.0)
Wealth index       
Q1 (poorest) 89 (6.5) 1 1 518 (48.6) 1 1
Q2 221 (16.2) 1.1 (0.8,1.6) 1.0 (0.7, 1.6) 413 (38.8) 1.3 (1.0,1.5) 1.2 (0.9,1.5)
Q3 836 (61.3) 1.3 (0.9,1.8) 1.3 (0.9,1.9) 75 (7.0) 1.8 (1.2,2.8) 1.5 (0.9,2.5)
Q4 (least poor) 218 (16.0) 1.4 (0.9,1.9) 1.5 (1.0, 2.2) 59 (5.5) 4.8 (2.5,9.0) 3.4 (1.6, 7.1)
HIV status       
Negative 1066 (78.2) 1 1 884 (82.9) 1 1
Positive 298 (21.8) 1.7 (1.4,2.1) 1.1 (0.8,1.4) 182 (17.1) 2.0 (1.5,2.7) 1.3 (1.0,1.9)
Self-rated Health       
Good/excellent 1086 (79.1) 1 1 769 (72.1) 1 1
Very poor/Poor/fair 273 (20.9) 2.5 (1.9,3.1) 2.0 (1.5,2.6) 290 (27.9) 2.4 (1.9,3.1) 2.0 (1.5,2.7)
Self-reported illness       
No 525 (38.6) 1 1 200 (18.8) 1 1
Yes 836 (61.4) 3.1 (2.7,3.7) 3.0 (2.2,3.9) 865 (81.1) 4.3 (3.5,5.3) 3.6 (2.9,4.4)
Mental distress       
No 1137 (83.4) 1 1 900 (84.4) 1 1
Yes 209 (15.3) 1.8 (1.4,2.3) 1.7 (1.4,2.4) 163 (15.3) 1.7 (1.2,2.2) 1.2 (0.9,1.7)
  1. All confidence intervals adjusted for cluster effect.
  2. Associations in bold are statistically significant.
  3. 1% the percentage of respondents who went to any health facility.