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Table 5 Differences in career- and workplace-related factors between female and male physicians with and without children

From: The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers - professional and personal situation seven years after graduation

  Females (n = 292) Males (n = 287)   Physicians without children (n = 368) Physicians with children (n = 211)   Total (n = 579) Female physicians (n = 292)   Male physicians (n = 287)  
         Without children (n = 191) With children (n = 101)   Without children (n=177) With children (n = 110)  
  n (%) n (%) p n (%) n (%) p n (%) n (%) n (%) p n (%) n (%) p
CAREER STEPS/MENTOR              
Dissertation (yes) 245 (83.9) 229 (80.4) 0.278 312 (84.8) 162 (77.5) 0.032 474 (82.1) 166 (86.9) 79 (78.2) 0.066 146 (82.5) 83 (76.9) 0.283
Specialty qualification 121 (41.4) 114 (40.1) 0.850 158 (43.1) 77 (36.8) 0.102 235 (40.8) 90 (47.1) 31 (30.7) 0.025 68 (38.6) 46 (42.6) 0.128
Mentor (yes) 118 (40.5) 169 (58.9) <0.001 188 (51.2) 99 (46.9) 0.342 287 (49.7) 84 (44.2) 34 (33.7) 0.103 104 (58.8) 65 (59.1) 0.999
SPECIALTY CHOICE    <0.001    0.020     0.116    0.137
Primary Care 34 (11.6) 31 (10.8)   33 (9.0) 32 (15.2)   65 (11.2) 18 (9.4) 16 (15.8)   15 (8.5) 16 (14.5)  
Internal Medicine 93 (31.8) 81 (28.2)   114 (31.0) 60 (28.4)   174 (30.1) 60 (31.4) 33 (32.7)   54 (30.5) 27 (24.5)  
Surgical fields 15 (5.1) 56 (19.5)   41 (11.1) 30 (14.2)   71 (12.3) 11 (5.8) 4 (4.0)   30 (16.9) 26 (23.6)  
Gynecology & Obstetrics 28 (9.6) 4 (1.4)   23 (6.3) 9 (4.3)   32 (5.5) 21 (11.0) 7 (6.9)   2 (1.1) 2 (1.8)  
Anesthesiology 23 (7.9) 26 (9.1)   37 (10.1) 12 (5.7)   49 (8.5) 18 (9.4) 5 (5.0)   19 (10.7) 7 (6.4)  
Pediatrics 34 (11.6) 8 (2.8)   25 (6.8) 17 (8.1)   42 (7.3) 22 (11.5) 12 (11.9)   3 (1.7) 5 (4.5)  
Psychiatry 24 (8.2) 18 (6.3)   26 (7.1) 16 (7.6)   42 (7.3) 13 (6.8) 11 (10.9)   13 (7.3) 5 (4.5)  
Other specialties 24 (8.2) 48 (16.7)   54 (14.7) 18 (8.5)   72 (12.4) 20 (10.5) 4 (4.0)   34 (19.2) 14 (12.7)  
Not decided 17 (5.8) 15 (5.2)   15 (4.1) 17 (8.1)   32 (5.5) 8 (4.2) 9 (8.9)   7 (4.0) 8 (7.3)  
WORKPLACE    0.005    0.006     <0.001    0.356
Regional hospital 42 (14.4) 30 (10.5)   44 (12.0) 28 (13.3)   72 (12.5) 30 (15.8) 12 (11.9)   14 (7.9) 16 (14.5)  
Cantonal hospital 80 (27.5) 92 (32.1)   121 (33.0) 51 (24.2)   172 (29.8) 65 (34.2) 15 (14.9)   56 (31.6) 36 (32.7)  
University Hospital 92 (31.6) 109 (38.0)   133 (36.2) 68 (32.2)   201 (34.8) 62 (32.6) 30 (29.7)   71 (40.1) 38 (34.5)  
Research Institution 2 (0.7) 10 (3.5)   10 (2.7) 2 (0.9)   12 (2.1) 2 (1.1) 0   8 (4.5) 2 (1.8)  
Family Medicine practice 17 (5.8) 8 (2.8)   15 (4.1) 10 (4.7)   25 (4.3) 9 (4.7) 8 (7.9)   6 (3.4) 2 (1.8)  
Medical specialty practice 8 (2.7) 5 (1.7)   7 (1.9) 6 (2.8)   13 (2.2) 4 (2.1) 4 (4.0)   3 (1.7) 2 (1.8)  
others 50 (17.1) 33 (11.5)   37 (10.0) 46 (21.8)   83 (14.4) 19 (9.5) 32 (31.7)   19 (10.8) 33 (11.5)  
CAREER ASPIRED TO    <0.001    0.005     0.002    0.280
Family Medicine practice 50 (17.1) 44 (15.4)   45 (12.3) 49 (23.2)   94 (16.3) 24 (12.6) 26 (25.7)   22 (12.6) 23 (20.9)  
Medical Specialty practice 65 (22.3) 57 (20.0)   74 (20.2) 48 (22.7)   122 (21.1) 36 (18.8) 29 (28.7)   37 (21.1) 19 (17.3)  
Hospital doctor (Spitalarzt) 32 (11.0) 10 (3.5)   30 (8.2) 12 (5.7)   42 (7.3) 22 (11.5) 10 (9.9)   8 (4.6) 2 (1.8)  
Hospital career (senior/chief physician) 86 (29.5) 109 (38.2)   140 (38.3) 55 (26.1)   195 (33.8) 71 (37.2) 15 (14.9)   69 (39.4) 40 (36.4)  
Academic career 8 (2.7) 37 (13.0)   29 (7.9) 16 (7.6)   45 (7.8) 6 (3.1) 2 (2.0)   23 (13.1) 14 (12.7)  
Others 15 (5.1) 12 (4.3)   14 (3.8) 13 (6.1)   27 (4.6) 9 (4.7) 6 (5.3)   5 (2.9) 12 (4.3)  
Not decided 36 (12.3) 16 (5.6)   34 (9.3) 18 (8.5)   52 (9.0) 23 (12.0) 13 (12.9)   13 (6.3) 5 (4.5)